Back to top

Appellation Cornell Topical Index

All newly created PDFs on this website are accessible. Accessible .pdfs for Appellation Cornell columns Grapes 101, Research Focus, and RIPE are archived at: ecommons.cornell.edu. To request additional accommodations, please contact calswebaccessibility@cornell.edu for assistance.

Grapes 101 - Grapes 101 is a series of brief articles highlighting the fundamentals of cool climate grape and wine production.


Vine Biology and Physiology

Grapes 101: Resource Assimilation and Vineyard Productivity
Grapes 101: Sources and Sinks: Allocation of Photosynthates during the Growing Season
Grapes 101Untangling the concepts of vine size, capacity, crop level, vigor, and vine balance
Grapes 101: Vine Balance and the Role of Vineyard Design
Grapes 101: How Grapevine Roots Grow
Grapes 101: How Grapevine Flowers Form
Grapes 101: Bud Fruitfulness and Yield
Grapes 101: How Grapevines Reconnect in the Spring
Grapes 101: Manipulating Cluster Size at Bloom
Grapes 101: How Grapevines Respond to Water Stress
Grapes 101Will Effects of the 2016 Drought Carry Over into 2017?
Grapes 101: Missing Parts: The cost of missing cordons, canes, and vines

Grapevine Breeding and Genetics

Grapes 101: The Core Grape Genome and Cheap DNA Sequencing:  A New Roadmap for Grape Breeders

Cold Hardiness/Winter Injury

Grapes 101: How Grapevine Buds Gain and Lose Cold-hardiness   
Grapes 101
: Managing Winter-Injured Vines
Grapes 101: I Have Galls in my Vineyard: Should I Call my Nursery?
Grapes 101: How Defoliation, Defruiting, and Extreme Shoot Reduction Affected Clusters, Fruit Composition, and Bud Hardiness

Vine Nutrition

Grapes 101: Lessons from the Big Dig: Dry Matter, Nitrogen Uptake, and Fertilizer Efficiency
Grapes 101: Potassium - From the Soil to The Wine
Grapes 101: Optimizing Nitrogen Use in Vineyards (pdf)

Insect and Disease Management

Grapes 101Powdery mildew: How important is overwintering inoculum?
Grapes 101: Grape Berry Moth Management
Grapes 101: Managing Black Rot
Grapes 101: What are Those Fungicide-Group Numbers on Product Labels?
Grapes 101Three Steps to Manage Grape Berry Moth
Grapes 101: How important are grapevine trunk diseases in New York?
Grapes 101: Phomopsis - Disease Biology and Management
Grapes 101: Missing Parts: The cost of missing cordons, canes, and vines
Grapes 101: Downy Mildew is caused by an Oomycete. What’s an Oomycete? Why does it matter?

Enology/Winemaking

Grapes 101: Formal and Informal Wine Sensory Evaluation
Grapes 101Conversion Factors: From Vineyard to Bottle
Grapes 101: What Yeast Do
Grapes 101: This article contains sulfites
Grapes 101: This Article Contains Sulfites - Part II
Grapes 101: This is fine: Wine additives, just passing through
Grapes 101: What Happens from Véraison to Harvest?
Grapes 101: The Science Behind Cold-Stabilization and Tartrate Removal
Grapes 101Understanding FSMA: Questions About New Food Safety Regulations
Grapes 101: Stuck and Sluggish Fermentation: Causes & Preventative Steps 
Grapes 101: How many grapes in a bottle of wine?

Economics/Business Management

Grapes 101: Success: Beyond Tons and Gallons  
Grapes 101: The 2009 Grape and Wine Report


Research Focus – Research Focus articles are in-depth explorations of specific research topics by Cornell faculty and staff.


Vine Biology and Physiology

Research Focus: Fifteen years of vine root growth studies in Concords
Research Focus: How radical manipulation of sources and sinks affected Riesling yield, bud hardiness, and return crop
Research Focus: Variable-rate Mechanical Shoot Thinning in Concord Demonstrates the Practical Application of Precision Viticulture 
Research Focus: Alternative shoot tip management practices to reduce laterals and cluster compactness

Vineyard Management

Research Focus: Expanding the Use of Under-Vine Cover Crops in NY Vineyards
Research FocusAdopting Under-Vine Cover Crops in Vinifera Vineyards 
Research Focus: Sensors Provide Information to Guide Variable-Rate Mechanical Fruit Thinning and Prevent Overcropping of Concord Grapes
Research Focus: Automating Measurements of Canopy and Fruit to Map Crop Load in Commercial Vineyards
Research and Extension Focus: Mechanical Crop Thinning Pays Off for Concord Growers
Research Focus: Enhancing Vine Health with Commercial Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Inoculants
Research Focus: Video Overview of Efficient Vineyard Project (9 minute video)
Research Focus: Measure and Manage Crop Load to Meet Your Vine Balance Targets

Variety Evaluation/Clean Plants/Genetics

Research Focus: Wine Grapes for New York's North Country: The Willsboro Cold Climate Variety Trial
Research Focus: Clean Plants for the Future of the Eastern Wine and Grape Industry
Research Focus: VitisGen: Mapping the Way to the Next Generation of Grapes
Research Focus: 22 Years of Grape Variety Trials Shape Long Island Grape Industry
Research FocusIntroducing Aromella and Arandell: Newest Products of Cornell's Grape Breeding Program
Research Focus: Small But Mighty: 'Pixie' Grapevine Speeds up the Pace of Grape Genetics Research and Breeding
Research Focus: How Close are We to Crown Gall-free Nursery Stock?
COMMENTARY: International Grapevine Genetics Conference: Vines without Powdery Mildew and Downy Mildew?
Research Focus:: Vineyard Trial Demonstrates Effectiveness of Roguing and Replanting to Curtail the Spread of Grapevine Leafroll Disease

Cold Hardiness/Winter Injury

Research Focus: Grapevine Winter Survival and Prospects in an Age of Changing Climate

Vine Nutrition

Insect and Disease Management/ Spray Technology

Research Focus: Red Blotch Disease Ecology and Management
Research Focus: Defining and Developing Management Strategies for Sour Rot
Research Focus: A Retrospective Study on Application Technology in the Vineyards of New York
Research Focus: What We have Learned about Crown Gall
Research Focus: Grape Disease Control: Taking Stock and Looking Forward
Research Focus: Botrytis Bunch Rot: A Disease Requiring Integrated Control
Research FocusGrapevine Leafroll Disease Control: It Pays to Test Neighboring Vines
Research FocusFocus on Females Provides New Insights for Grape Berry Moth Management
Research Focus: Climate, Duration of Bloom, and the Window of Risk for Grapevine Diseases
Research Focus: Variable Eastern Weather Influences Powdery Mildew Severity
Research Focus: Improving Spray Deposition through Engineering Innovation
Research Focus: Heat and UV Radiation from Sunlight Exposure Inhibit Powdery Mildew
Research FocusThe Potential of Light Treatments to Suppress Certain Plant Pathogens and Pests
Extension Focus: Spotted Lanternfly Eggs Detected in the Finger Lakes

Enology/Winemaking

Research Focus: Cornell Researchers Tackle Green Flavors in Red Wines
Research Focus: The Wild, Wild Yeast: An Ecological Survey of Yeast Species and Strains in Finger Lakes Riesling
Research Focus: Sulfur Residues and Post-bottling Formation of Hydrogen Sulfide
Research Focus: New Insight on Hybrid Tannin Retention
Research Focus: "Free" Doesn't Always Mean Free - Rethinking SO2 Measurements
Research Focus: Sanitation of Wine Cooperage using Five Different Treatment Methods: An In Vivo study
Research Focus: Sulfur Dioxide Content of Wines: The Role of Winemaking and Carbonyl Compounds
Research Focus: Comparing Red Wine Color in V. Vinifera and Hybrid Cultivars
Research Focus: Flavor Challenges of Breeding Disease-Resistant Grapes Using North American Vitis spp.
Research Focus: The Chemistry of Canned Wines

Economics/Business Management

Research Focus: Do Restaurants in New York Cater to "Locapours"
Resource: Cost of Establishment and Production of vinifera Grapes in the Finger Lakes Region of New York (1997)
Resource: Cost of Establishment and Production of vinifera Grapes in the Finger Lakes Region of New York (2001)
Resource: Cost of Establishment and Production of vinifera Grapes in the Finger Lakes Region of New York (2004)
Resource: Cost of Establishment and Production of vinifera Grapes in the Finger Lakes Region of New York (2007)
Resource: Cost of Establishment and Production of vinifera Grapes in the Finger Lakes Region of New York (2010)
Research FocusCost of Establishment and Production of V. vinifera Grapes in the Finger Lakes Region of New York (2013)
Resource: Cost of Establishment and Production of Hybrid Grapes in the Finger Lakes Region of New York (2013)
Research Focus: Cost of Establishment and Production of vinifera Grapes in the Finger Lakes Region of New York (2019)
Research Focus: Increasing Customer Satisfaction Improves Tasting Room Sales
Research Focus: How the "Cost of Establishment and Production of V. vinifera Grapes" has changed since 1997
Extension Focus: Cornell Workforce Development and Cornell Farmworker Programs provide outreach on COVID-19 for farmworkers
Research Focus: How Vineyard Acreage and Varieties in New York have Changed since the Mid-1950's


Research In Plain English (RIPE) – RIPE articles are brief summaries of journal articles by Cornell faculty. RIPE summaries aim to translate technical jargon into concise summaries accessible to non-scientists.


Vine Biology and Physiology

RIPE: Deconstructing cold hardiness: variation in supercooling ability and chilling requirements in the wild grapevine Vitis riparia
RIPE: Considerations on Spatial Crop Load Mapping
RIPE: X-ray phase contrast imaging of Vitis spp. buds shows freezing pattern and correlation between volume and cold hardiness
RIPE: Grape mapping populations reveal genetic variation in bloom and fruit development
RIPE: Determining which vegetative index is best for your vineyard

Vineyard Management

RIPE: Timing and Severity of Leaf Removal and Methoxypyrazines
RIPE: Crop load adjustment in 'Seyval blanc': Impacts on yield components, fruit composition, consumer wine preferences, and economics of production
RIPE: Palissage Reduces Cluster Zone Lateral Shoots Compared to Hedging 
RIPE: Impact of Shoot Thinning and Harvest Date on Yield Components, Fruit Composition, and Wine Quality of Marechal Foch
RIPE: Sampling and estimating average pruning weights in Concord
RIPE: Under-vine Management Impacts Soil Properties and Leachate Composition in a NYS Vineyard
RIPE: Impact of undervine management on vine growth, yield, fruit composition, and wine sensory analyses of Cabernet franc
RIPE: A camera and laser system for automatic vine balance assessment
RIPE: Impact of Fruit-Zone Leaf Removal on Rotundone Concentration in Noiret
RIPE: A New, Satellite NDVI-Based Sampling Protocol for Grape Maturation Monitoring
RIPE: Using cell phones to obtain accurate prebloom cluster counts

Variety Evaluation/Clean Plants/Genetics

RIPE: Natural infection of Run1-positive vines by naïve genotypes of Erysiphe necator
RIPE: Polyphenolic profiles detected in the ripe berries of Vitis vinifera germplasm
RIPE: Variation Within and Among Vitis spp. for Foliar Resistance to Powdery Mildew
RIPE: Construction of a high-density linkage map and QTL detection of downy mildew resistance in Vitis aestivalis-derived ‘Norton’
RIPE: Grapevine Domestication and Diversity
RIPE: Grape mapping populations reveal genetic variation in bloom and fruit development
RIPE: A Novel Grape Downy Mildew Resistance Locus from Vitis rupestris
RIPE: Single and multiple phenotype QTL analyses of downy mildew resistance in interspecific grapevines
RIPE: Newly Identified Powdery Mildew Resistance Locus (REN11) on Chromosome 15 Confers Stable, Non Race-Specific Resistance

Cold Hardiness/Winter Injury

RIPE: Characterization of Wild North American Grapevine Cold Hardiness Using Differential Thermal Analysis

Vine Nutrition

Insect and Disease Management

RIPE: Antimicrobial Peptides Tested Against Crown Gall, Botrytis and Powdery Mildew
RIPE: Variation Within and Among Vitis spp. for Foliar Resistance to Powdery Mildew
RIPE: Influence of trap design on upwind flight behavior and capture of female grape berry moth with a kairomone lure
RIPE: Mitigating the Economic Impact of Grapevine Red Blotch Virus
RIPE: Control of Sour Rot via Chemical and Canopy Management Techniques
RIPE: Grapevine red blotch-associated virus is present in free-living Vitis sp. proximal to cultivated grapevines
RIPE: A rapid, sensitive and inexpensive method for detection of grapevine red blotch virus
RIPE: Development of a diagnostic test of Tumorigenic A. vitis in grapevines
RIPE:  Elimination of the Crown Gall Pathogen, Agrobacterium vitis, from Systematically Infected Grapevines by Tissue Culture

Enology/Winemaking

RIPE: Leaf Removal and TDN associated with "Petrol Aromas" in Riesling
RIPE: Sensory Descriptors for Frontenac
RIPE: Convenient, inexpensive quantification of elemental sulfur
RIPE: Persistence of elemental sulfur spray residue on grapes during ripening and vinification
RIPE: Pathogenesis-related Proteins Limit the Retention of Condensed Tannin Additions to Red Wines
RIPE: Conventional Measurements of SO2 in Red Wine Overestimate SO2 Antimicrobial Activity
RIPE: Modeling the Impacts of Weather and Cultural Factors on Rotundone Concentration in Cool-climate Noiret Wine Grapes 
RIPE: It’s all in your head(space). Researchers invent automatable method to measure free S02 in wine 
RIPE: Yeast Assimilable Nitrogen (YAN) Optimization for Cool-Climate Riesling
RIPE: Retaining Tannins in Blends of Vinifera and Hybrid Grapes

Concord/Niagara Juice Processing

RIPE: Concord Processing and Green Leaf Volatiles
RIPE: Comparison of odor-active compounds in grapes and wines from Vitis vinifera and non-foxy American grape species
RIPE: Color Retention During Concord Juice Processing
RIPE: Assessment of the validity of maturity metrics for predicting the volatile composition of Concord grape juice
RIPE: Shelf-life evaluation of natural antimicrobials for Concord and Niagara grape juices

Economics/Business Management

RIPE: Economic Model For Cluster Thinning in Grapes
RIPE: Financial Impact of Grapevine Leafroll Virus in New York Vineyards
RIPE: Economic impact of grapevine leafroll disease on Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet franc in Finger Lakes Vineyards of New York
RIPE: A Computational Approach for Balancing Competing Objectives in Winegrape Production
RIPE: Modeling Impacts of Viticultural and Environmental Factors on 3-Isobutyl-2-Methoxypyrazine in Cabernet franc Grapes
RIPE: Regulating the availability of beer, wine, and spirits in grocery stores: Beverage-specific effects on prices, consumption, and traffic fatalities
RIPE: Reducing the economic impact of Grapevine Leafroll Disease in California
RIPE: The Influences of Music on Perception of Oaked Wines - a Tasting Room Case Study in the U.S. Finger Lakes Region
RIPE: Economic Studies Reinforce Efforts to Safeguard Specialty Crops in the United States